Report Requirements for
Airfield Asphalt Pavement
Technology Program (AAPTP)

A US Department of Transportation Airport Technology Research Appropriation
Administered by Auburn University
in partnership with Federal Aviation Administration

October, 2005


  1. General Requirements
  2. Report Organization
  3. Style



All reports will be the property of the Federal Aviation Administration and will be supplied in a format that complies with the agency's Section 508 requirements for electronic documents. A policy statement for Section 508 can be found at, and the Section 508 website, a summary and list of standards, can be found at http://www.section5 0


Reports should be complete in all their parts, organized appropriately to serve their purposes, correct in matters of fact and documentation, and edited for basic uniformities of style and usage. Time and effort devoted to the preparation of a quality report are clearly worthwhile investments, because poorly organized and poorly written reports will not be acceptable in fulfilling contract requirements. Furthermore, all text, tables, and figures should be suitable for publication with a minimum of editing, because extensive changes made by an editorial staff unfamiliar with the research cause delay and may easily result in unintended changes of meaning.


  1. One (1) hard copy and one (1) electronic file of all draft final reports and documents are to be submitted for AAPTP staff and project panel review.
  2. After the report has been revised in accordance with the reviewers' comments, the research agency is to submit two (2) hard copies of the report. These copies should be printed on one side only on numbered, double-spaced pages of 8 x 11-in., plain white paper. If the report contains art (e.g., figures, photographs, and tables), each piece of art must be identified by number and legend or title. Cite the outside source of the art if applicable. In addition, the final report should be submitted in a press quality PDF format. The editorial hard copies and the electronic files should match exactly. Electronic files should be in Microsoft Word. All files should be labeled so that it is clear what the file contains.
  3. When interim reports are called for on projects, two (2) copies are to be submitted along with a Microsoft Word electronic file containing the interim report. These copies should meet similar requirements as final reports, because, even though interim reports are usually not published, they may be distributed to the AAPTP sponsors and other organizations for retention or loan. If interim report publication is warranted, the requirements for the revised interim reports are the same as for final reports.


All AAPTP reports follow a standardized format that includes front matter, body, and appendixes. The content of each is described below in the order of presentation.


When a preliminary draft of a report is submitted to AAPTP for review and publication, it should contain all the following items as front matter.


The front external cover of reports submitted to AAPTP must be of light-colored, non- glossy material, preferably paper or board, and capable of accepting rubber stamp ink without smearing.

Acknowledgment of Sponsorship and Disclaimer

All interim and final reports must contain the two statements shown in Figure 1. They must be printed exactly as stated, either on the inside front cover or as the first sheet following the cover, preceding everything else and exclusive of any other information.

Title Page

At the option of the research agency, a title page listing essentially the same information as the external cover may follow the acknowledgment and disclaimer statements. Note: Editors use the title page information for the author page of published reports.

Table of Contents

An acceptable table of contents is shown in Figure 2. Note that chapter and appendix titles, and at least the principal section headings within chapters, are included.

List of Figures and List of Tables

Requirements for figures and tables are discussed in Section III, Style.


The acknowledgments section in the report should include titles and affiliations of the research team members and other contributors at the time the research was conducted, and their connection with the research should be reported. If changes in title or affiliation have occurred, the titles or affiliations at the time of report submission also should be stated. Acknowledgments do not cite either AAPTP staff assistance or, usually, the assistance of typists or proofreaders, for example.


An abstract of 200 words or less (i.e., no longer than one page of double-spaced typewritten material), suitable for use in computerized information storage and retrieval systems, should be presented after the acknowledgments. The abstract should use direct statements in complete sentences to describe the work scope and principal findings.


The body of an AAPTP report is designed to provide information to the reader whose primary concern is to put research results into practice. For this reason, the report organization is very important, and a standard structure is recommended.

Summary of Findings

The summary of findings is often the most influential part of the report and must be written with the busy administrator in mind. It should contain a readable yet condensed description, explained within the context of the project scope and objectives, of the research findings and conclusions that evolved from the project. It should contain only information that is essential to an understanding of the findings and how they relate to the solution of operating problems. It is not an abbreviated version of the full report.

Recommended Chapter Sequence And Descriptions

Report chapters should be structured in a concise and logical manner suitable to the subject matter, clearly describing the research approach, findings, and conclusions.

Chapter Sections

Within the chapter structure, subheadings should be employed to distinguish separate subject matter. Properly used headings can be very helpful to readers, especially to those with limited reading time who must concentrate on what are to them the most consequential parts of a report. As illustrated in Figure 3, four levels are usually sufficient for AAPTP reports. Follow these styles exactly.


The last item within the body of the report is a listing of the references that have been cited within the text. The method for presenting references is prescribed under Section III of these Requirements.


Preceding sections of the final report have been directed to practitioners, public officials, and administrators. Appendix presentations are designed for the researcher, developer of manuals and guidelines, and other professional users of the research results who are interested in the maximum degree of technical detail provided by the project effort.


To achieve uniformity and consistency in series publications, AAPTP editors use standard reference works for guidance. The latest edition of Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary is the preferred authority for spelling and capitalization.

The Chicago Manual of Style and Words Into Type is also generally followed. Published AAPTP reports are an important source of information on both organization and style acceptable to the AAPTP. Following are some rules of style that are designed to ensure reasonable uniformity and consistency in AAPTP reports.


Preparation of text for all reports (other than camera-ready copy) should be guided by the following notes:

  1. Type all material double-spaced, including quotes, references, and so forth on 8 1/2 x 11-in. paper.
  2. Provide margins of at least 1 in. on all sides.
  3. Begin each chapter or appendix on a new page.
  4. Paginate the front matter with lowercase roman numerals at the bottom of the page.
  5. Paginate the body of the report consecutively with Arabic numerals at the bottom of the page.
  6. Paginate appendixes with letters and Arabic numerals at the bottom of the page (i.e., A-1, A-2, ..., B-1, B-2, and so forth).
  7. Be sure that all symbols, Greek letters, and mathematical signs are exact, defined, and absolutely unambiguous; for example:
    • w versus ω [omega]
    • capital O versus Θ [theta] versus 0 [zero]
    • p versus ρ [rho]
    • capital X versus χ [chi] versus × [times sign]
    • Y versus Φ [psi]
    • lowercase l [ell] versus number 1 [one]
  8. Show the relative positions in equations and formulas of all subscripts, superscripts, fractions, and operators.
  9. Give units of measure common to the field of research reported. Most projects will involve the use of the metric system (System International, SI) in the conduct of the research and the reporting of research results. Specific requirements for the units to be used in a project are dictated by the need to facilitate application of the findings in a particular technical area.
    Several options for incorporating metric are available. Projects may require that reports use exclusively SI units of measurement. In some cases, SI units may be presented as the primary units of measurement, followed by customary U.S. units of measurement in parentheses. Occasionally, customary U.S. units may be the primary system, followed by SI units in parentheses. There may be a few instances for which solely U.S. units are used. Additionally, issues related to hard or soft conversions of measurements may arise. The research agency should discuss the appropriate use of metric units with the Program Officer early in the project.
    Guide to Metric Conversion, AASHTO R1 (AASHTO's formal policy on metric), or through ASTM E380 (Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units (SI)). Occasional deviations from the guidance in these documents may be required.


Tables are used to present short descriptions or numerical listings that are most clearly and effectively presented in tabular form. They should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate, information given in the text and illustrations. Please be guided by the following instructions:

  1. Provide tables as close to the first reference as possible.
  2. Number all tables in the body of the report consecutively with Arabic numerals.
  3. Number appendix tables by appropriate letter and consecutive Arabic numerals (e.g., A-1, A-2, ..., B-1, B-2, ..., and so forth).
  4. Title all tables to identify their contents.
  5. Identify each table by author's name and the project number in addition to table number.
  6. Arrange tabular matter carefully so that the intended comparisons are clear. Choose appropriate vertical columns to provide reasonable balance to horizontal and vertical dimensions.
  7. When a dash (-) is used in a table, indicate its meaning in a footnote (e.g., missing data, data not available or applicable).
  8. Combine tables of similar form in order to reduce space requirements, eliminate heading duplications, and permit easier comparison of values.
  9. Use superscript letters for footnoting numerical values in tables but superscript numerals for footnoting predominantly written material in tables.
  10. Check the accuracy of all totals included in tables.
  11. Refer to each table by number at the appropriate places in the text.

Figures should convey information clearly and completely. In the published report, figures will be reduced to 1-column width (3 in.), 1 column-width (5 in.) or full-page width (6 in.). Lettering and numerals must be of adequate size and clarity on original drawings to permit this reduction. Please be guided by the following instructions:

  1. Provide figures as close to the first reference as possible.
  2. Number all figures in the body of the report consecutively with Arabic numerals.
  3. Number appendix figures by appropriate letter and consecutive Arabic numerals (e.g., A-1, A-2, ..., B-1, 13-2,..., and so forth).
  4. Caption all figures to identify their contents. Cite the outside source of the figure if applicable.
  5. Use figures of comparable size and scale when they are intended to be compared.
  6. Use abbreviations, numerals, and capitals consistent with text material (see recommended style manuals).
  7. Submit one copy each of the following for publication purposes:
    • Photographs -- glossy prints, high-resolution digital files, or color slides.
    • Line drawings -- original black-on-white tracings, sharp photographic copies, or original laser print copies. (Photocopies, blueprints, ozalid prints, or dot-matrix printouts are seldom reproducible. Do not use fine-grid graphs unless the grid is quite open. Avoid screen tints.)
  8. Identify each drawing and photograph by project number as well as figure number.
  9. Do not use cellophane tape over any part of line art or photographs.

Reference sections, unlike bibliographies, list only sources cited in the text and in the order of citation. (Bibliographies generally include all sources consulted, not just those cited in the text, and generally are organized alphabetically.) We prefer reference sections to bibliographies.

The listing of references demands absolute accuracy. Because they come from a wide variety of sources, definite rules for the identification of reference materials have been adopted. They should be carefully observed.

  1. List numerous references together at the end of the text in the order in which they are cited in the text. An item in this list is referenced in the text by an italic (or underscored) Arabic numeral in parentheses at the pertinent point.

    Example: Beskow (14) says...

  2. Be sure that:
    • names are spelled correctly and consistently.
    • initials and dates are correctly given.
    • title of article is given as published.
    • ACS (American Chemical Society) abbreviations are used for periodicals and other standard publications.
  3. Avoid unpublished references. Do not use expressions such as "Paper prepared for presentation," or "Paper presented at" when publication has occurred. Give only the published location.
  4. Print the names of journals, proceedings, bulletins, and so forth in italics; print the titles of papers in roman and in quotation marks, thus: Jones, J. J., "A Technical Paper." Proceedings, American Society for Testing Materials, Vol. 22, Part 11 (1922) p. 450.
  5. In citing (and in listing), if reference is made to the whole work, give the total number of pages; if only to a specific part, give the pages involved. If several separate pages or parts of the same work are referred to at different places in the text, give the entire work in the reference list; in the text, simply use (3, pp. 16-21), (3, p. 24), (3, Ch. 5). A reference in the list should not be repeated or be referred to by the use of ibid., loc. cit., and so forth.
  6. Be sure that entries agree with text and other citations of references. Remember that text revisions may require renumbering or other reference changes and vice versa.
  7. Use the following guide for treatment of reference items [Note: the names and initials of authors (including joint authors) should be inverted]:
Periodical: Egar, S. L., "Resurfacing Methods Used Successfully on Chicago's Streets." Engineering News-Record, Vol. 243, No. 18 (June 23, 1963) p. 25.
Proceedings: Leadabrand, J. A. and Norling, L. T., "An Example of Soil-Cement Treatment." 2nd Int. Conf. on Soil Mech. and Found. Eng., Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Proceedings Vol. 4 (1956) pp. 62-84.
Title: "New Cement Additive." Engineering, Vol. 196, No. 5072 (July 1963) p. 9.
Abstract: "Directional Signing on Metropolitan Freeways." Automobile Club of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. (July 3, 1963) 11 pp. Highway Research Abstracts, Vol. 34, No. 6 (June 1964) p. 10.
Corporate author: Automotive Safety Foundation, "Traffic Control and Roadway Elements: Their Relationship to Highway Safety." Washington, DC (1963) 124 pp.
Report: Author(s), "Title." NCHRP Report XXX, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC (1975) xx pp.
Book: Author(s), Title. Publisher (year) xx pp.
Part of book only: Hickok, B., "Highways." Sources of Information in Transportation, Evanston, IL, Transportation Center, Northwestern Univ. (1964) pp. 201-234.
Highway Dept. report: New York Dept. of Public Works, "Asbestos Admixture in Asphalt Concrete." Physical Research Proj. No. 11. Engineering Research Series, Research Rept. RR60-5 (Dec. 1960) 22 pp.
Congressional document: U.S. Cong., 77th 2d SESS., Committee on Roads, Proposed Highway to Alaska. Hearings ... on H.R. 3095, a bill authorizing the construction of a highway to Alaska, Feb. 4, 5, and 6, 1942. Washington, DC, U.S. Govt. Print. Office (1942) 151 pp.


Bibliographies, unlike reference sections, may list sources consulted but not then cited in the text. Bibliographies generally are organized alphabetically. (Reference sections list only the sources cited in the text and in the order of citation.) Although we prefer reference sections, if a bibliography is included, arrange the entries as one of the following:

  1. Alphabetical Arrangement by Author. Arrangement by author will include names of persons (authors, editors, and compilers) and corporate bodies (governmental agencies, societies, institutions, and so forth). In listing federal governmental agencies, "U.S." should precede the name of the agency so that such entities may be grouped in the bibliography.
  2. Chronological Arrangement. A bibliography may be arranged chronologically to show the development of a subject. Entries are then arranged alphabetically by author under the year.
  3. Classified Subject Arrangement. This arrangement is made on the basis of a systematic division of the subject of the bibliography. Alphabetical author arrangements are used in such lists under each subject.
Each entry in a bibliography provides information that will result in ready identification. Entries must be sufficiently detailed, intelligible, and consistent in form with the style followed throughout the bibliography.

An annotation, in the form of a paragraph, may be placed after the main body of the entry. Compress the annotation to the fewest possible words.


Abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols must be fully defined the first time they are used in the report; the definition should be given first followed by the abbreviated term in parentheses.


In the interest of economy and to avoid the introduction of errors, all figures and most tables are reproduced directly from original material submitted by the author (photocopies are not acceptable because they do not reproduce clearly). Art and tables produced on a dot-matrix printer are not acceptable. All graphs and figures shall be capable of interpretation when reproduced in black and white.


Do not use footnotes to the text. Incorporate such notes within the text. Footnotes are acceptable only in tables and figures.


If already published material is used in report (as in quotations of 50 words or more or use of tables and illustrations), extreme care is necessary to comply with any copyright requirements that may apply. If there is any doubt about whether reprinted material is copyrighted, it should be checked with the author and/or publisher. Permission in writing to use copyrighted material must then be obtained by the research agency -- not by AAPTP editorial staff from both the author and the publisher. Copies of all correspondence regarding permission to use copyrighted material, particularly the final letters granting permission, should be transmitted to AAPTP, where they will become part of the permanent file on the particular report.

Particular attention is called to the fact that practically all commercial journals are copyrighted in toto, as also are most association journals, all commercial books, many association books and manuals, many special reports (e.g., ASTM, TRB, and so forth), and all newspapers. Because the United States of America is bound by many foreign copyrights, any use of foreign materials should be checked as carefully as materials published in the United States.

After permission to use copyrighted material has been obtained, the AAPTP should be given both a bibliographical reference to the source and a specific tie to the referenced material, particularly figures. For text material, the edition and page (preferably located by lines) should be cited; for tabular material, the page and table number should be given.


This report has been prepared for Auburn University under the Airport Asphalt Pavement Technology Program (AAPTP). Funding is provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) under Cooperative Agreement Number 04-G-038. Dr. David Brill is the Contracting Officer, Technical Representative, and serves as a Program Manager in the FAA Airport Technology Branch at the William J. Hughes Technical Center. Mr. ______________________ served as the Project Director for this project.

The AAPTP and the FAA thank the Project Technical Panel that willingly gave of their expertise and time for the development of this report. They were responsible for the oversight and the technical direction. The names of those individuals on the Project Technical Panel follow.


The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented within. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views and polices of the Federal Aviation Administration. The report does not constitute a standard, specification or regulation.

Figure 1. Acknowledgment of sponsorship and disclaimer for AAPTP Interim Reports and Final Reports.


LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

CHAPTER 1 Introduction and Research Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

Problem Statement and Research Objective
Scope of Study
Research Approach

CHAPTER 2 Findings and Analysis . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

State-of-the-Art Summary
Erratic Maneuvers at Exit Gore Areas
Causes of Erratic Driver Behavior
Remedial Treatments

CHAPTER 3 Discussion of Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

General Recommendations
Geometric Design Criteria
Traffic Control Devices

CHAPTER 4 Conclusions and Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20


REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

APPENDIX A State-of-the-Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-1

APPENDIX B Case Study Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B-1

Figure 2. Sample of table of contents for final reports.



(bold, caps, flush left)

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Fourth-Level Heading. (bold run-in) The text begins here... and continues here...

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Figure 3. Employment of headings within chapters.

Maintained by Linda Kerr