Request for Proposal
Project 05-03
Effect of Deicing Chemicals on HMA Airfield Pavements

Proposals Due June 30, 2006

Airfield Asphalt Pavement
Technology Program (AAPTP)

RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT

Deicing and anti-icing chemicals are widely used for aircraft and pavement operations throughout the northern regions of the United States. Pavement damage caused or accelerated by use of these chemicals is an emerging concern. Although some research efforts have been made on Portland cement concrete pavements and aggregate reactions, little has been done to assess the potential damage to HMA pavements. There are increasing concerns over the potential damage to hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements and a few reports of stripping occurring when asphalt pavements are subjected to exposure of deicing and anti-icing chemicals. This project is to investigate issues relating to damage of HMA by deicing and anti-icing chemicals, determine the extent and potential for damage, and develop procedures to identify and mitigate damage.

Objective

The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of HMA airport pavements subjected to deicing and anti-icing chemicals that are being used to minimize the effect of snow and ice on aircraft and airport pavement facilities. This study shall have both a field component and laboratory component. The field component will gather and evaluate information on the usage of deicing and anti-icing materials and investigate damaged and undamaged HMA airfield pavements that have been subjected to these chemicals. The laboratory component will propose laboratory test methods and procedures to identify the potential for damage to HMA in the mix design process in order to prevent or minimize the impact on HMA airport pavements. The product from this effort shall be a comprehensive document of field performance and guidance to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), draft specifications, FAA engineering brief (EB) or technical advisory circular (AC). The guidance and recommendations must consider but not be limited to the following:

  1. Performance of HMA airport pavements subjected to exposure to AMS 1424 Type I (deicing fluids) and AMS 1428 Type II/III/IV (anti-icing fluids).
  2. Performance of HMA airport pavement subjected to pavement deicing and anti-icing chemicals such as potassium acetate, sodium acetate, potassium formate, sodium formate and urea.
  3. Performance of HMA pavements that used anti-strip measures that have been exposed to the deicing and anti-icing chemicals mentioned in items 1 & 2.
  4. Influence of asphalt binder modifiers on performance of HMA subjected to these chemicals.
  5. Application rates, concentrations and frequency of use of the various individual deicing and anti-icing chemicals.
  6. Climatic conditions that affect reactions between HMA and deicing and anti-icing chemicals.
  7. Exposure frequency and duration that HMA pavements are subjected to deicing and anti- icing chemicals.
  8. HMA mixture and pavement properties that may influence reactions between the HMA and deicing and anti-icing chemicals. The properties shall include but not limited to: density, air voids, in-situ porosity, mix moisture, asphalt film thickness, and age of pavement.
  9. Identification of interactions between deicing and anti-icing chemicals and the component materials in HMA pavements. This is to include but not limited to the glycol and asphalt binder interactions and the interactions between aggregate type and the deicing and anti-icing chemicals.
  10. Early detection methods to determine HMA damage from deicing and anti-icing chemicals.
  11. Mitigation procedures for HMA pavements found to be damaged by deicing or anti-icing chemicals.
  12. Laboratory tests and test result values that are indicators of long term durability and performance of HMA mixtures.

Process

This project will be accomplished in two phases. Phase I shall consist of: a literature search on work in the subject area; gathering information on deicing and anti-icing usage in the United States; a limited laboratory testing program to develop and/or revise procedures to investigate the issues; and development of a detailed laboratory and field investigation plan to be conducted in Phase II. Phase II shall consist of conducting the field and laboratory investigations and preparing the final product documents. The initial award shall be for Phase I work and Phase II work may be awarded by the technical panel without further competition upon satisfactory performance of Phase I and approval of the Phase II Work Plan. The work shall be accomplished by addressing the following tasks: Phase I

Task 1 -- Review existing literature on deicing and anti-icing chemicals and corresponding test methods used to evaluate durability of necessary characteristics of HMA and its components.

Task 2 -- Collect information on usage of deicing and anti-icing chemicals at airports in the United States that have HMA runways, taxiways, and aprons. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has conducted a significant survey of deicing and anti-icing at US airports. Information on the survey is available at . The EPA contact for this information is Mr. Eric Strassler, Project Manager Engineering and Analysis Division, (202) 566-1026, e-mail: strassler.eric@epa.gov.

Task 3 -- Collect initial field performance information on HMA pavement performance subjected to deicing and anti-icing chemicals. Emphasis shall be on airports that have reported distress and/or that are subject to intense applications of deicing and anti-icing chemicals. The purpose of this information is to select airports among the large, medium and small hub airports for field investigations in Phase II. This effort shall include evaluation of information from Boston Logan International Airport.

Task 4 -- Conduct preliminary laboratory tests to develop and assess HMA characteristics and proposed laboratory tests that will be recommended in Task 4 for extensive testing in Phase II.

Task 5 -- Develop a detailed field evaluation, laboratory work plan and final report table of contents. The field evaluation work plan shall consist of four to six (4-6) airport investigations to collect samples and assess the HMA pavement distress that may be attributed to deicing and anti-icing chemicals. The researcher shall provide details of the test methods used in pavement evaluation that allows an assessment of deicing and anti-icing chemical damage. The laboratory work plan shall consist of test procedures and testing plan to assess the information from literature and performance gathering activities, and to confirm major relationships believed to be factors in HMA performance when subject to deicing and anti-icing chemicals. The work plan shall also summarize the findings in Task 1 through Task 4 and provide the rationale for selected test(s) and work to be performed in Phase II. This information should be provided to the technical panel for review within six (6) months from award. The technical panel will provide comments within two (2) weeks of receiving the plan.

Task 6 -- A project technical panel meeting shall be conducted at the researcher's primary testing facility to discuss the finalized field and laboratory test plan and review proposed testing to be performed in Phase II.

Phase II

This phase may be awarded to the researcher selected for Phase I work without further competition provided that the researcher provides an approved work plan and performs Phase I in a satisfactorily, timely manner. The decision for Phase II will be made within one (1) month after the conclusion of Phase I.

Task 7 -- Collect field samples and evaluate performance of selected HMA airport pavement per approved field work plan.

Task 8 -- Conduct materials testing per approved work plan.

Task 9 -- Evaluate test results and make a presentation and/or provide draft report on initial findings and recommendations to the technical panel for review and comments. This is to be done at approximately 40-50% completion of Phase II. It is anticipated that this will be about 12-15 months after award of the Phase I work.

Task 10 -- Provide draft final report for panel review and comments. Also draft revised specifications, engineering brief and advisory circular for FAA procedures shall be provided as appropriate for research results. The technical panel will provide comments within one (1) month after receiving drafts.

Task 11 -- Revise report and other documents per panel comments and provide final report, advisory circular and test protocol. Camera ready copy of the final documents and electronic copy in press quality PDF format shall be submitted under this task.

Unless otherwise specifically stated, all written documentation will be prepared using Microsoft Word and supplied in a format that complies with the FAA's Section 508 requirements for electronic documents. All reports and documents provided under this effort will be the property of the AAPTP and Auburn University.

Reporting Requirements

Progress Reports

Quarterly progress reports (2 hard copies and an electronic copy in Microsoft Word format) are required from the research agency and are to be prepared on the basis of calendar quarters. The research agency will mail the hard copy reports directly to the AAPTP and will e-mail each of the members of the project technical review panel an electronic copy of the progress report. Each report will include a cover letter and the following:

  1. a clear and complete description of the work performed on each task during that quarter;
  2. an outline of the work to be accomplished during the next quarter;
  3. a description of any problem(s) encountered or anticipated that might affect the completion of the project within the time and fiscal constraints recommended;
  4. potential solutions to problems identified in (c) if any exist.

Report Format

The formats for the Interim and Final reports are provided under "Forms."

Contractual Information

Proposal: The proposal shall discuss and address both capabilities and proposed approach for both Phase I and Phase II tasks of the project.

Funds Available: Total $250,000. Phase I is approximate $100,000 and Phase II approximately $150,000. Funds remaining from Phase I may be applied to Phase II.

Contract Time: Total time for Phase I and Phase II is 18-24 months. This includes 1 month for review of Phase I results and determination of Phase II status and one (1) month for review of final draft documents. Phase I contract time shall be six (6) months. Contract time for Phase II is anticipated to be 12-18 months and will be determined by the approved Phase II work plan.

Laboratory Accreditation: Any laboratory performing work on this study should be fully accredited by the AASHTO Materials Reference Laboratory or similar accreditation organization to do asphalt mix design testing and aggregate testing. Laboratories not fully accredited must provide information as to procedures or processes used to meet quality standards equivalent to AASHTO accreditation.

Staff Responsibility: Monte Symons, 334-844-4964, symonmg@auburn.edu

Proposals Due: June 30, 2006

Submit Proposals To: AAPTP, 277 Technology Parkway, Auburn, AL, 36830

Authorization to Begin Work: August 1, 2006 -- estimated


Maintained by Linda Kerr